Volume 11 Issue 1 (2022)

Students’ Authentic Experiences of On-the-job Training Programs

pp. 7-23  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.1

Chi Hong Nguyen, Vi Thanh Tran Thach


Background/purpose – While current research has focused on the potentials and limitations of on-the-job-training (OJT) programs from higher education administrators, as well as employers’ and teachers’ perspectives, this study takes those of students’ on board. It extends the conventional conceptualization of students’ satisfaction of OJT as mere psychology.

Materials/methods – By using Wilt et al.’s (2019) concept of (in)authenticity, this study employed in-depth interviews with 18 students at a private university in Vietnam.

Results – The study found that students’ authentic experiences of OJT comprise four interrelated elements; students’ self-esteem and confidence, psychological changes, collegiality, and realization of possibilities and opportunities that arise from their failure.

Conclusion – This article points out that students authentically experience this program as part of their lives rather than separate entities that are often marked in OJT evaluative frameworks. The way they find their OJT experiences authentic goes beyond their awareness of learning that is forged by OJT evaluative frameworks or supervisors’ instructions to how they make sense of their present experiences in relation to their interactions with others in the workplace to fulfill their future aspirations for work and life.

Keywords: Authenticity, on-the-job training (OJT), higher education, authentic experiences, learning, students’ confidence, students’ psychology


Deconstructing What Teachers Can Learn From Studying Psychology

pp. 24-34  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.2

Toolika Wadhwa


Background/purpose – Courses on psychology form a constituent part of teacher education programs, both at the preservice and inservice levels. With certain variations, these courses tend to focus on the theories of learning, development, and diversity. As teacher education programs in India prepare to undergo changes in accordance with the 2020 National Education Policy, this paper explores the rationale of including the subject of psychology in the education of teachers.

Materials/methods – This study is a review article; presenting a literature review on the rationale of including the topic of psychology in the education of teachers.

Results – The paper is presented in four sections. The first section discusses the recommendation of the curriculum framework on teacher education in order to establish an outline for psychological studies in teacher education. The second section explores the insights that can be drawn from an understanding of psychology. Today’s multicultural student body brings diverse needs, thoughts, and ideas to the classroom, which makes it imperative for teachers to understand learning spaces and processes from a sociocultural perspective. The third section expands the focus of studying psychology from understanding learners to understanding teachers. This shift in focus is required as teachers work under immense stress and existing preservice teacher education programs are inadequate in building the requisite capacities to deal with personal and professional stress. The fourth section explores the role of teachers in today’s fast-changing world. It is through an understanding of their self that teachers develop better awareness of their role in relation to their students.

Conclusion – The need to reinvent pedagogical strategies to suit the needs of learners and to explore new ways of conceptualizing content in the classroom will be highlighted. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the need to reconceptualize courses in psychology by understanding theories in psychology in their sociohistorical embeddedness.

Keywords: Psychology, learning, teacher preparation, psychology in education


Contribution of Emotional Exhaustion towards Depersonalization among College Teachers

pp. 35-51  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.3

Nazia Fardous, M. Tanveer Afzal


Background/purpose – The aim of this correlational study was to analyze the contribution of emotional exhaustion towards depersonalization among college teachers.

Materials/methods – All serving teachers in public colleges of Gujranwala division, Pakistan, formed the population of the study, while 400 were randomly selected as the study’s sample. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was adapted to measure emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among teachers, as both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are two distinct dimensions of burnout. The validity and reliability of the adapted tool to measure emotional exhaustion and depersonalization was assessed through expert opinion and pilot testing (emotional exhaustion α = .83, depersonalization α = .86). Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews in order to triangulate the quantitative data. Pearson r was used to establish the contribution of emotional exhaustion towards depersonalization among teachers.

Results – The correlation results showed that emotional exhaustion significantly contributes towards depersonalization among college teachers. Demographic variables of gender, age, experience, and qualifications were also examined in the context of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among teachers. ANOVA was used to interpret the demographical variables in the context of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among college teachers. The study concluded that gender and age significantly differ in their effects on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among college teachers, while experience and qualification revealed no significant difference.

Conclusion – Based on the study’s results, the researchers suggests that a conducive working environment constituting cordial interpersonal relationships and a balanced workload should be provided in educational institutions in order to control the factors that can contribute towards emotional exhaustion to avoid depersonalization among college teachers, and so that the performance of college teachers may be improved. The researchers recommend that further studies be undertaken in this field with different and larger populations.

Keywords: Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, college teachers


Inculcating Civilizational Ethics through Education: Efficacy of Educating for Gross National Happiness

pp. 52-69  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.4

Rinchen Dorji


Background/purpose – In the trajectory of the Bhutanese education system, imparting traditional and cultural values to children has always been at the core. With the growth and transition of the education system from monastic to modern, various ways have been explored and applied to inculcate values among Bhutanese children. In 2010, a concept called “Educating for Gross National Happiness” was introduced into the Bhutanese education system. At that point it was believed that Educating for Gross National Happiness was the answer to addressing falling values, shifts in attitudes, and beliefs among our children brought about by the forces of globalization. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of Educating for Gross National Happiness in instilling proper human and cultural values among our children. In total, 108 teachers working in schools across the country participated through responding to a survey questionnaire. Findings demonstrate that while there are indications of some positive impacts of the Educating for Gross National Happiness program, certain factors need to be taken into consideration to bring about a more profound impact in the overall development of Bhutanese children as initially envisioned. n this study, I examined the efficacy of Educating for Gross National Happiness in terms of inculcating moral values among children in Bhutanese schools.

Materials/methods – I applied both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods in this research. Quantitative data were collected through a structured questionnaire from 108 teachers located across Bhutan, and qualitative data were collected through interviews, observation, and lesson plan analysis. Triangulation of the quantitative and qualitative data was conducted in order to validate the findings.

Results – The findings revealed that while there are some indications of success from the Educating for Gross National Happiness program, it has yet to deliver any profound impact in the overall development of Bhutanese children as initially envisioned.

Conclusion – The Educating for Gross National Happiness program could become much more effective if certain factors such as providing adequate training to teachers on the revised curriculum, and introducing standardized testing of values-based education as a separate subject area.

Keywords: GNH, Education, Values, Morals, tha-dham-tsig, ley gju-drey


Teaching Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Assessment of Nigerian Colleges of Education Lecturers’ Technology Knowledge and Integration

pp. 70-80  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.5

Jacob Kola Aina, Kehinde Ajiboye, Azeez Adebayo Abdulwasiu, Jacob Olaifa Attah, Israel Olosunde


Background/purpose: The emergence of COVID-19 affected global education, which prompted a shift in the teaching paradigm to remote learning. This learning technique requires that lecturers in higher institutions have an adequate knowledge of current technologies and are able to integrate them into the teaching and learning process. Lecturers in Nigerian colleges of education joined their counterparts globally in adopting remote learning practices during the pandemic. The focus of this study aimed at examining their knowledge of relevant technologies and how they were able to integrate them into the classroom.

Materials/methods: The study adopted a survey research method, with a questionnaire used to assess the lecturers. The questionnaire focused on technological knowledge, technological pedagogical knowledge, technological content knowledge, technological pedagogical and content knowledge, and the technologies most frequently used during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collected from 180 participants were analyzed and the results presented based on descriptive statistics.

Results and conclusion: The analyzed data showed that lecturers possessed relevant knowledge of technology, knew how to select technology appropriate for specific teaching methods, and to integrate them into teaching. However, the lecturers only used limited computer hardware, which was deemed inadequate for technology-based remote learning during a pandemic. Therefore, the authors conclude that the lecturers have adequate technological knowledge and integration skills, but lack the appropriate hardware to deliver effective technology-based remote learning.

Keywords: COVID-19, technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, TPACK, technology


Personal Characteristics and Academic Staff Teaching Adjustment to the New Normal: The Case of a Public University in Nigeria

pp. 81-92  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.6

Valentine J. Owan, john A. Ekpenyong, Udida J. Udida


Background/purpose – This study assessed personal characteristics and teaching adjustment to the new normal among academic staff at a public university in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study.

Materials/methods – The descriptive survey design research design was adopted for the study. Using the multistage sampling procedure, a sample of 313 respondents was obtained from 2,410 academic staff. The Personal characteristics and teaching adjustment questionnaire (PCTAQ) was used as the data collection instrument. However, primary data were collected from 297 academic staff who voluntarily participated. Independent t-test analysis was employed in testing the hypotheses at the .05 level of significance.

Results – Teachers’ attitudes towards e-learning were found to have significantly influenced their teaching adjustment to the new normal. Teachers who maintained favorable attitudes towards e-learning reported higher COVID-19 teaching adjustment success rates than their counterparts with unfavorable attitudes. The level of ICT education significantly influenced their teaching adjustment to the new normal. Academic staff with a high level of ICT education adjusted their teaching strategies more to the new normal than those with a low level of ICT education.

Conclusion – It was concluded that teachers’ characteristics can significantly influence teaching staff’s adjustment to the new normal. The implication is that university academic staff need to develop positive attitudes toward e-learning and be ready to maximize all the potential benefits of utilizing digital technologies for instructional delivery.

Keywords: Adjustment, attitude, COVID-19, e-learning, ICT, new normal


The Influence of Gender and Secondary School Type on the Development of Key Competence for Lifelong Learning Communication in a Foreign Language among High School Students

pp. 93-104  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.7

Svetlana Pandiloska Grncharovska, Kiril Barbareev


Background/purpose: Knowledge and proficiency in foreign languages has always been considered a characteristic of respectable and educated members of society, and it has long been considered that learning languages contributes to the enrichment of one’s personality. This especially applies in modern living conditions, where foreign language proficiency has become essential to successfully function within an international community which has become increasingly plurilingual.

Materials/methods: The goal of this paper is to determine to what level secondary education in the Republic of North Macedonia develops the key competence of communication in a foreign language among students. In order to throw light on the various aspects of learning foreign languages and their respective cultures, a questionnaire with assessment scales was constructed, and which was then applied to 160 students from secondary schools in the Municipality of Tetovo.

Results: The findings lead us to conclude that secondary school students in the Republic of North Macedonia have not mastered their ability to learn foreign languages and their cultures to a sufficient level.

Conclusion: Being proficient in languages other than one’s mother tongue is a prerequisite for achieving important life goals such as employment and job retention, obtaining citizenship or a permit to work in another country, achieving horizontal and vertical career growth, establishing social relations and similar goals. For this particular reason, life in multilingual and multicultural Europe obliges its citizens to actively study non-native languages at all levels of education.

Keywords: key competencies, communication in a foreign language, lifelong learning


The Relationship Between Power Types Used by School Principals and Teachers’ Autonomy Behaviors

pp. 105-121  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.8

Efraim Keskin, Yahya Altınkurt


Background/purpose – This study aimed to reveal the relationship between power types used by school principals and teachers’ autonomy behaviors.

Materials/methods – The population of this descriptive study consisted of private and public school teachers employed in primary, secondary, and high schools in the center of İzmir, Turkey. This study was designed according to the survey model, with a sample consisting of 419 teachers. The Teacher Autonomy Scale developed by Çolak and Altınkurt (2017) and The Organizational Power Scale in Schools developed by Altınkurt and Yılmaz (2013) were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and multivariate regression analysis were used in the analysis of the collected data. 

Results – According to the participant teachers, school principals mostly use legitimate power, then expert power, reward power, referent power, and coercive power, respectively. Teachers’ general autonomy behaviors were found to be at a high level. Among the autonomy dimensions, teachers mostly displayed teaching autonomy, followed by curriculum autonomy, communication autonomy, and professional development autonomy, respectively. The power types used by school principals explained 18% of teachers’ autonomy. Reward power was revealed as a significant predictor of teachers’ autonomy behaviors.

Conclusion – As seen in the study results, the school principals’ power preferences affect teachers’ autonomy behaviors. Therefore, it is important for school principals to use their power appropriately so as to create an open and healthy school climate where teachers can state their opinions easily and take part in decision making. However, leaving this situation to the discretion and initiative of the principals could result in other problems. For this reason, the most important step required would be to make structural arrangements for the empowerment of teachers.

Keywords: autonomy, teacher autonomy, power, school principals


An Investigation into the Profile of an Effective Language Teacher

pp. 122-142  |  Published Online: October 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.111.9

Turan Paker, Büşra Duran


Background/purpose – Teachers have a pivotal role for the academic success of learners both in and out of the classroom. In this study, we attempt to identify the characteristics of effective teachers from the perspective of preservice English language teachers. With this aim, the personal characteristics, professional skills, and academic qualities of effective language teachers, as perceived by candidate teachers, were delineated.

Materials/methods – The research adopted was the mixed-method approach with the explanatory sequential design, through which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in order to gain a better understanding, and to seek to obtain more comprehensive results. The study’s participants were 75 junior and senior students studying in the Department of English Language Teaching of a state university. The data were collected through the application of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive analysis; with mean, standard deviation, and percentage values and qualitative transcribed interview data analyzed through content analysis with themes and codes.

Results – The findings revealed that there were critical personal qualities for the effectiveness of language teachers such as treating all students equally and fairly, being motivating, being respectful, and being open-minded. Additionally, the most important professional qualities were changing the teaching style in accordance with the target students’ proficiency level, making use of various audio-visual materials and technological devices, being effective at classroom management, and knowing how to assess students through the four skills areas of language learning. The participants also highlighted their language fluency according to competence in the four language skills areas and having intelligible pronunciation as critical academic qualities for effective English teachers. 

Conclusion – According to preservice English language teachers, the study’s overall results indicated that the personal characteristics of English teachers were more appreciated than their professional or academic qualities in terms of their effectiveness.

Keywords: effective language teachers, teacher characteristics, teaching quality, perception of student teachers, English language teacher



► New issue coming soon! (Volume 13 Issue 1, 2024)

Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions. Authors are invited to submit papers from the all fields of the Education (General) and Social Sciences (General) in the international context. All submissions should be presented only in English.