Volume 10 Issue 1 (2021)

Factors Predictive of University Students’ Job Values and Their Influences on Future-Oriented Employment Preferences: A Ghanaian Perspective

pp. 7-25  |  Published Online: June 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2021.101.1

Majoreen Osafroadu Amankwah and Mohammed-Aminu Sanda


Background/purpose – This study explored factors that are predictive of the job values of graduating Ghanaian tertiary students and the influences of such factors on their future-oriented employment preferences.  

Materials/methods – Guided by a survey design, quantitative data were collected from 994 third-year and final-year students from a public university in Ghana. While principal component analysis was employed in order to identify factors predictive of students’ job values, one-sample t-test was used to establish the significance levels of job value factors identified as premium. Independent sample t-test then determined the level of variation in the job value factors according to gender and job preference.

Results – The findings showed that job security and good pay are considered the most important. While job designs with an attractive economic motivation package (e.g., job security plus good pay) were shown to matter more to male students, attractive psychological motivation (e.g., autonomy and independence) was seen as more important to the female students that participated in the study. Unlike male students, the female students tended to place a higher premium on jobs with convenient working hours.

Conclusion – Collectively, Ghanaian students will likely opt for formal employment as against self-employment due to their association with the stable provision of extrinsic and psychological motivation packages in their future employment. This paper aims to provide useful insights and to help improve our understanding of future-oriented employment dynamics of graduating university students in the context of a developing country.

Keywords: University education, graduating students, job values, employment preference, Ghana.


Influence of Social Networking Sites as a Teaching Aid on Students’ Academic Performance and Satisfaction Level

pp. 26-39  |  Published Online: June 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2021.101.2

Faieza Chowdhury, Syka Parvin and Aruna Anwar


Background/purpose – Social Networking Sites (SNSs) and social media have revolutionized daily life practically worldwide, providing opportunities to connect with others from almost anywhere in the world and at any time. As a nation, Bangladesh is one of the largest users of social media as people from all age groups spend much of their time as its users. Although SNSs can create certain problems such as lack of privacy and cyberbullying, it can also provide users with various benefits too. In this study, we explore the influence of SNSs on students’ academic performance and satisfaction levels in Bangladesh.

Materials/methods – A preliminary survey was conducted with 100 students in Bangladesh at the tertiary level to gather data on how SNSs as a teaching tool in the class can influence their academic performance and satisfaction. The STATA statistical software was utilized to conduct t-test and to generate the results.

Results – The findings indicate that although the difference in academic performance of both the control and experimental groups remained statistically insignificant, students from the experimental group expressed higher levels of satisfaction in terms of learning.

Conclusion – The study highlights the efficacy of incorporating popular social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook as tools in the classroom which can help students to enhance their learning.

Keywords: Student satisfaction, Student performance, Social network, HEIs, Bangladesh.


Secondary School Teachers’ Knowledge on Procedures for Constructing Quality Classroom Tests in Tanzania

pp. 40-54  |  Published Online: June 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2021.101.3

Jaquiline Amani, Septimi Kitta, Orestes Silverius Kapinga and Christina Mbilinyi


Background/purpose – Classroom assessment practices, being either formative or summative, form a fundamental part of the teaching and learning process. This paper presents findings on secondary school teachers’ competences for constructing quality classroom tests. In particular, the study examined teachers’ awareness of skills and procedures for constructing quality classroom tests, established the type of professional support teachers need for constructing quality tests based on the identified areas of deficiency, and determined the influence of experience in the teaching profession on teachers’ competences for test construction.

Materials/methods – This study was conducted with a convenient sample of 246 secondary school teachers who were drawn from four regions in Tanzania, namely Lindi, Mtwara, Kilimanjaro, and Arusha. The study employed a quantitative research approach with the use of semi-structured questionnaires as the data collection tool. Data were analyzed using IBM’s Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22.0 to compute frequencies, percentages, and other relevant statistical tests.

Results – The findings show that the majority of the participant teachers lacked competences for preparing quality classroom tests, particularly on the use of Table of Specification and test-item analysis. The results showed that more than 70% of the teachers had never received inservice training on the subjects of assessment and testing. It was further found that the teachers lacked professional support on how to prepare matching items, short answers, and multiple-choice test items.

Conclusion – Based on the findings, the authors recommend strengthening initial teacher education in view of competence-based assessment.

Keywords: Teachers’ test construction skills, classroom-based tests, secondary schools, Tanzania.


The Association between Workplace Incivility and Teachers’ Motivation Levels

pp. 55-75  |  Published Online: June 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2021.101.4

Ramazan Yirci and Sabri Daso


Background/purpose – The main purpose of this study is to examine the association between workplace incivility and teachers’ motivation levels.

Materials/methods – The sample comprises 355 teachers working in the 2020-2021 academic year in kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high school types. The research was designed with the relational scanning model, which is one of the quantitative research methods. As data collection tools, the “Workplace Incivility Scale” developed by Cortina et al. (2001) and adapted to Turkish by Polatçı and Özçalık (2013), and the “Teacher motivation scale” developed by Taşpınar (2006) and revised by Polat (2010) were used. The collected data were then analyzed using IBM’s SPSS Version 22.0 statistics package program.

Results – The results showed that a moderate negative relationship exists between teachers’ perceptions regarding workplace incivility and their level of motivation. Teachers’ views on workplace incivility were found to significantly predict their motivation levels. It is expected that working towards decreasing incivility in schools will help to positively contribute to teachers’ motivation levels.

Conclusion – Within the study, it was determined that the teachers with the lowest level of motivation, according to their duration of service, were novice teachers. For this reason, it may be especially beneficial to offer a more qualified mentoring program to newly qualified teachers during the early years of their professional service.

Keywords: Incivility, teachers, workplace incivility, teacher motivation.


Avoiding Fuzzy Letter Grading Systems: Designed Research to Ensure Fair Translation of Academic Performance into Letter Grades That Provide Tangible Measures of the Skills International Employers Seek from College Graduates

pp. 76-92  |  Published Online: June 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2021.101.5

Kyffin Bradshaw


Background/purpose – College graduates from Small Island Developing States (SIDS) often seek regional and international employment. However, grading systems differ across countries and regions, making it difficult for international and regional employers to accurately interpret and translate foreign Letter Grades into the skills and personal attributes graduates need to secure regional and international employment. This study investigated the ability of SIDS to adequately represent on the global labor market the employability of their graduates after having completed a program specifically guided by learning outcomes, assessments, and Letter Grading.

Materials/methods – Bayesian statistics is considered robust in providing empirical evidence. Consequently, it was employed in this study to look for evidence linking the evaluation descriptors SIDS use in their Letter Grading System to the skills and levels their graduates actually attained in order to make them employable on equal grounds.

Results – The findings suggest that the Letter Grading System used by SIDS is inadequate for reliably communicating the level of academic mastery and competencies needed for graduating students to achieve employability on the international market.

Conclusion – Ultimately, SIDS must design and implement ambiguity-free, homogeneous Letter Grading Systems that include comprehensive qualitative indicators of the evaluation criteria used to rank their graduates if they are to convey valid and consistent messages to those who need to interpret them (i.e., prospective employers).

Keywords: Employability, Assessment, Bayesian statistics, Letter grade system.



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