21st Century Teacher Skills and Their Contribution to the Educational System According to Expert and Teacher Views
pp. 41-61 | Published Online: December 2022 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2022.112.3
Serkan Ünsal, Cennet Tandırcı
Background/purpose – In the 21st century, humankind has experienced an unprecedented level of change and we should therefore ensure that the new generations are educated with the skills appropriate to this ever-developing technological era. However, in order to adequately equip students their teachers first need to acquire these 21st century skills. In this respect, this study aims to reveal what these 21st century teacher skills are and, according to the opinions of teachers and experts, how their acquisition by teachers contributes to the education system.
Materials/methods – The research was designed as a qualitative phenomenological study. The participants consisted of six academicians who are each experts in the field of teacher training, plus 13 working teachers. The study’s data were collected through a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Content analysis was then used in the analysis of the data.
Results – It was revealed that teachers should possess many varied and versatile skills. Once these 21st century skills have been acquired by teachers, they can actively contribute to both parties’ futures according to many different aspects.
Conclusion – Education plays a crucial role in shaping the future generations. However, fulfillment of these roles is only possible through teachers who first acquire and master these 21st century skills, and then learn to impart these skills to their current and future students.
Keywords: skills, 21st century skills, teacher skillsReferences
Acun, İ., Demir, M., & Göz, N. L. (2010). The Relationship between Student Teachers’ Citizenship Skills and Critical Thinking Skills. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 1(1), 107-123. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jsser/issue/19095/202603
Anagün, Ş. S., Atalay, N., Kılıç, Z., & Yaşar, S. (2016). The Development of a 21st Century Skills and Competences Scale Directed at Teaching Candidates: Validity and Reliability Study. Pamukkale University Journal of Education Faculty, 40, 160-175. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/pauefd/issue/33883/375190
Ananiadou, K., & Claro, M. (2009). 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, Paper No. 41. https://doi.org/10.1787/19939019
Arabacı, İ. B., & Polat, M. (2013). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants and Classroom Management. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 12(47), 11-20. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/esosder/issue/6161/82824
Aydemir, Y., & Çiftçi, Ö. (2008). A Research on Asking Question Ability of Literature Teacher Candidates (Gazi University, Education Faculty Pattern). Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Journal of Education, 5(2), 103-115. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/yyuefd/issue/13714/166035
Bahadır, Z., Certel, Z., & Topuz, R. (2019). The Role of 21st century Learner Skills of Physical Education and Sports Teachers and Teacher Candidates on Teacher Skills. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 21(2), 395-402. https://doi.org/10.15314/tsed.593785
Bal, M. (2018). Investigation on the 21st Century Skills of Turkish Language Course. Turkish Studies, 13(4), 49-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.12922
Baltacı, A. (2019). The Qualitative Research Process: How to Perform a Qualitative Research? Ahi Evran University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 5(2), 368-388. https://doi.org/10.31592/aeusbed.598299
Beers, S. (2011). 21st Century Skills: Preparing Students for Their Future. STEM. https://cosee.umaine.edu/files/coseeos/21st_century_skills.pdf
Belet-Boyacı, Ş. D., & Güner-Özer, M. (2019). The Future of Learning: Turkish Language Course Curricula from The Perspective of 21st Century Skills. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 9, 708-738. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.578170
Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., & Rumble, M. (2010). Draft white paper 1: Defining 21st Century Skills. Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills project. The University of Melbourne. https://oei.org.ar/ibertic/evaluacion/sites/default/files/biblioteca/24_defining-21st-century-skills.pdf
Borja, R. E. (2018). Honing the 21st Century Characteristics of Lecturers in the Faculty of Education for Effective Job Performance. African Educational Research Journal, 6(3), 160-164. https://doi.org/10.30918/AERJ.63.18.054
Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Demirel, F., Karadeniz, Ş., & Çakmak, E. K. (2019). Eğitimde Bilimsel Araştirma Yöntemleri [Scientific Research Methods]. Pegem.
Cansoy, R. (2018). 21st Century Skills According to International Frameworks and Building them within the Education System. Journal of the Human and Social Sciences Researches, 7(4), 3112-3134. https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.494286
Chalkiadaki, A. (2018). A Systematic Literature Review of 21st Century Skills and Competencies in Primary Education. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.1131a
Creswell, J. W. (2016). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (M. Bütün & S. B. Demir, Trans.). Siyasal
Dağhan, G., Kibar, P. N., Çetin, N. M., Telli, E., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2017). 21st Century Learners’ and Teachers’ Characteristics from ICT Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives. Educational Technology Theory and Practice, 7(2), 215-235. https://doi.org/10.17943/etku.305062
European Commission. (2018). Commission Staff Working Document Accompanying the Document Proposal for a Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:395443f6-fb6d-11e7-b8f5-01aa75ed71a1.0001.02/DOC_1&format=PDF
Evin Gencel, İ. (2013). Prospective Teachers’ Perceptions towards Lifelong Learning Competencies. Education and Science, 38(170), 237-252. http://egitimvebilim.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB/article/view/1847
Faulkner, J., & Latham, G. (2016). Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(4), Article 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2016v41n4.9
Glesne, C. (2012). Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction. (A. Ersoy & P. Yalçınoğlu, Trans.). Anı.
Gültekin, M. (2020). Education and Qualities of Teachers in the Changing Society. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 10(1), 654-700. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.682130
Günüç, S., Odabaşı, H., & Kuzu, A. (2013). The Defining Characteristics of Students of the 21st Century by Student Teachers: A Twitter Activity. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 9(4), 436-455. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/63366
Gürbüztürk, O., & Koç, S. (2012). The Evaluation of the Skills of Teacher Candidates’ Information Literacy in the 21st Century. Education Sciences, 7(1), 27-49. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/nwsaedu/issue/19817/211977
Hamarat, E. (2019). Analiz Türkiye’nin eğitim politikalarını 21. yüzyıl becerileri odağında ele almakta ve bu konuda yeni politika önerileri getirmektedir [On the basis of 21st century Skills, Turkey’s Education Policies]. In 21. Yüzyil Becerileri Odağinda Türkiye’nin Eğitim Politikalari [Turkey's Educational Policies With A Focus On 21st Century Skills] (pp. 7-27). Seta Analysis, 272. Seta. https://setav.org/assets/uploads/2019/04/272A.pdf
Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Learning Activity Types: Curriculum-Based Technology Integration Reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2009.10782536
Howlett, G., & Waemuse, Z. (2019). 21st Century Learning Skills and Autonomy: Students’ perceptions of Mobile Devices in the Thai EFL Context. Teaching English with Technology, 19(1), 72-85. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1204626.pdf
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2012). Educational Research Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Approaches. Sage.
Kereluik, K., Mishra, P., Fahnoe, C., & Terry, L. (2013). What Knowledge is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 29(4), 127-140. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1010753.pdf
Keskin, İ., & Yazar, T. (2015). Examining Digital Competence of Teachers Within the Context of Lifelong Learning Based on of the Twenty-First Century Skills. International Journal of Human Sciences, 12(2), 1691-1711. https://doi.org/10.14687/ijhs.v12i2.3503
Kivunja, C. (2015). Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well With 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v4n1p1
Koray, Ö., Altunçekiç, A., & Yaman, S. (2005). Fen Bilgisi Öğretmen Adaylarinin Soru Sorma Becerilerinin Bloom Taksonomisine Göre Değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of the Question Writing Skills of Science Teachers According to the Bloom Taxonomy]. Pamukkale University Journal of Education Faculty, 17, 33-39. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/114763
Korkmaz, E., & Gür, H. (2006). Determining of Prospective Teachers’ Problem Posing Skills. Journal of Balıkesir University Institute of Science and Technology, 8(1), 65-74. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/228479
Korkut, E., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2008). Foreign Language Teacher Candidates’ Information and Computer Literacy Perceived Self Efficacy. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 34, 178-188. https://avesis.hacettepe.edu.tr/yayin/61dce119-6d0f-464c-ab85-2e8e9fb5eef6/foreign-language-teacher-candidatess-information-and-computer-literacy-perceived-self-efficacy
Kozikoğlu, İ., & Altunova, N. (2018). The Predictive Power of Prospective Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Perceptions of 21st Century Skills for Their Lifelong Learning Tendencies. Journal of Higher Education & Science, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.5961/jhes.2018.293
Lemke, C. (2002). enGauge 21st Century Skills: Digital Literacies for a Digital Age. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory & the Metiri Group. https://firstnationspedagogy.com/engauge21st.pdf
Merriam, S. B. (2013). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation (S. Turan, Trans.). Nobel
Murat, A. (2018). Investigation of Prospective Science Teacher’s 21st Century Skills Competence Perceptions and Attitudes toward STEM [Master’s thesis, Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey]. https://acikerisim.firat.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11508/12488/515427.pdf
Okogbaa, V. (2017). Preparing the Teacher to Meet the Challenges of a Changing World. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(5), 81-86. https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP/article/view/35468
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2018). The future of Education and Skills. https://www.oecd.org/education/2030/E2030%20Position%20Paper%20(05.04.2018).pdf
Orhan Göksün, D. (2016). The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers’ Use of 21st Century Learner Skills and 21st Century Teacher Skills [Doctoral dissertation, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey]. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/tezDetay.jsp?id=ppJPN2u9IP1i4a_m_R9ZXw&no=wR4U8DJX_crhqi_YLLRV5Q
Pa-alisbo, M. A. C. (2017). The 21st Century Skills and Job Performance of Teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(32), 7-12. https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP/article/view/39716
Partnership 21. (2019). Framework for 21st Century Learning. http://static.battelleforkids.org/documents/p21/P21_Framework_Brief.pdf
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424816
Selvi, K. (2011). Teachers’ Lifelong Learning Competencies. International Journal of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, 1(1), 61-69. http://ijocis.com/index.php/ijocis/article/view/52/72
Soh, T. M. T., Osman, K., & Arsad, N. M. (2012). M-21CSI: A Validated 21st Century Skills Instrument For Secondary Science Students. Asian Social Science, 8(16), 38-44. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v8n16p38
Stickler, U., Hampel, R., & Emke, M. (2020). A Developmental Framework for Online Language Teaching Skills. Australian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 133-151. https://doi.org/10.29140/ajal.v3n1.271
Tarbutton, T. (2018). Leveraging 21st Century Learning & Technology to Create Caring Diverse Classroom Cultures. Multicultural Education, 25(2), 4-6. https://www.store.caddogap.com/product/winter-2018-21st-century-learning/
Uche, C. M., Kaegon, L. E., & Okata, F. C. (2016). Teachers’ Level of Awareness of 21st Century Occupational Roles in Rivers State Secondary Schools. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(8), 83-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i8.1621
Urbani, J. M., Roshandel, S., Michaels, R., & Truesdell, E. (2017). Developing and Modeling 21st-century Skills with Preservice Teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 44(4), 27-50. https://www.jstor.org/stable/90014088
Valli, P., Perkkilä, P., & Valli, R. (2014). Adult Pre-service Teachers Applying 21st Century Skills in the Practice. Athens Journal of Education, 1(2), 115-130. https://www.atiner.gr/journals/education/2014-1-2-2-Valli.pdf
Voogt, J., & Roblin, N. P. (2010). 21st Century Skills Discussion Paper. University of Twente. http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/254371
Wagner, T. (2008). Rigor Redefined: The Seven Survival Skills For Careers, College, and Citizenship. Advisors Corner. Educational Leadership, 66(2). https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/rigor-redefined
Yalçın, S. (2018). 21st Century Skills and Tools and Approaches That Are Used to Measure These Skills. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 51(1), 183-201. https://doi.org/10.30964/auebfd.405860
Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Seçkin.
Yıldız Durak, H., & Tekin, S. (2020). Investigation of Teachers’ Lifelong Learning Competencies According to Personal and Professional Variables. Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 20(1), 221-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.17240/aibuefd.2020.20.52925-547041
► New issue coming soon! (Volume 12 Issue 2, 2023)
► Call for Papers
UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions. Authors are invited to submit papers from the all fields of the Education (General) and Social Sciences (General) in the international context. All submissions should be presented only in English.